Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: A Comprehensive Systematic Review
journal contributionposted on 2023-08-30, 17:55 authored by Tae-Jin Song, Keum Hwa Lee, Han Li, Jung Yoon Kim, Kathleen Chang, Seong Heon Kim, Kyoung Hee Han, Bo Yi Kim, Andreas Kronbichler, Anne Ducros, Ai Koyanagi, Louis Jacob, Min Seo Kim, Dong Keon Yon, Seung Won Lee, Jee Myung Yang, Sung Hwi Hong, Ramy A. Ghayda, Joon Won Kang, Jae Il Shin, Lee Smith
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and prognosis of patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two investigators independently searched PubMed and EMBASE, and 191 cases were included in this study. Information regarding demographics, triggering factors, brain imaging findings, treatment modalities, recurrence, and clinical outcome was collected. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 39.9 years, and 155 (81.2%) were female. The most common triggering factor for RCVS was an exposure to vasoactive substances (41.4%), followed by pregnancy/postpartum (20.9%), and sexual intercourse (10.5%). Multifocal stenosis (84.0%) and beading shape (82.4%) were the leading abnormal findings on angiography, while cerebral ischemic lesions (47.6%) and cerebral hemorrhage (mainly subarachnoid hemorrhage) (35.1%) were the main findings on brain computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Calcium channel blockers (nimodipine/verapamil) were the most commonly used medications (44.5%) in the treatment of RCVS. Multivariate analysis identified that RCVS was precipitated by trauma/surgery/procedure (hazard ratio (HR): 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.21-8.88), p=0.019), and presence of aphasia/neglect/apraxia during the acute phase of the disease (HR: 3.83, 95% CI (1.33-11.05), p=0.013) were found to be the two independent risk factors for residual neurological deficit after RCVS. CONCLUSIONS: In our systematic review, vasoactive substances were the most frequent triggers for RCVS, which was most commonly accompanied by angiographic findings of multifocal stenotic lesions. Patients with RCVS precipitated by trauma or surgical procedures and those with focal cortical deficits had a higher risk of residual neurological deficits, and these patients should closely be monitored.
Publication titleEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
- Accepted version