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Chocolate Consumption and Indicators of Adiposity in US Adults

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posted on 2023-08-30, 16:54 authored by Lee Smith, Igor Grabovac, Sarah E. Jackson, Nicola Veronese, Ce Shang, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez, Felipe B. Schuch, Ai Koyanagi, Louis Jacob, Pinar Soysal, Lin Yang, Xiangzhu Zhu
Purpose: To investigate the association between consumption of chocolate and measures of adiposity in a large, representative sample of US adults. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 13,626 non-diabetic adults (≥20 years) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study were aggregated using five study cycles from 2005-06 through 2013-14. Chocolate consumption was determined based on two 24-hour dietary recalls. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were objectively measured. We used multivariable linear regression to test associations of (i) any chocolate consumption (yes/no), and (ii) the total amount of chocolate consumption (grams/day, in quartiles) with BMI and waist circumference. Models controlled for sociodemographic, lifestyle, health-related, and dietary covariates. Results: Overall, 11.1% of the population self-reported any chocolate consumption in either of their two 24-hour dietary recalls. Adjusted linear regression models showed that individuals who reported any chocolate consumption had 0.92 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.53 to 1.32) lower BMI, and 2.07 cm (95% CI: 1.22 to 2.92) lower waist circumference than those who reported no chocolate consumption. In models examining the association of amount of chocolate consumption and weight status, compared to those who did not consume chocolate, lower BMI (p for trend =0.003) and waist circumference (p for trend =0.001) were observed in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd quartile of total chocolate consumption. Conclusions: In this representative sample of US adults, chocolate consumption was associated with lower markers of adiposity. Further research using a longitudinal or experimental design is needed to establish the direction of causation.



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American Journal of Medicine





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