Cole_2019_2.pdf (700.32 kB)
The analysis of Cu, Mn and Zn content in prescription food for special medical purposes and modified milk products for newborns and infants available in Polish pharmacies from toxicological and nutritional point of view
journal contributionposted on 2023-08-30, 16:07 authored by Kamil Jurowski, Mirosław Krośniak, Maria Fołta, Barbara Tatar, Michael D. Cole, Wojciech Piekoszewski
Background: Prescription food for special medical purposes (FSMPs) and modified milk products (MMPs), available in pharmacies, are important for newborns and infants that are not breastfed. In the scientific literature there is a lack of comprehensive studies and corresponding safety assessment of the essential trace elements in these products. Objective: The aim of this article was determination of Cu, Mn and Zn levels in the most frequently available prescription FSMPs (n = 6) and MMPs (n = 6) available in Polish pharmacies. Methods Flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following microwave induced digestion (concentrated nitric acid) was applied to determine the levels of the elements in the products. Results: Our studies are based on a triple approach (1) the “raw results” of Cu, Mn and Zn levels (products in powdered form), (2) single intake - the level of each essential trace element consumed in one portion, (3) the daily intake depending on age and weight including comparison with Adequate Intake established by European Food Safety Authority. Conclusion: The results show the occurrence of differences between the manufacturer’s declared composition and the finished product for consumption. The prescription FSMPs in comparison to MMPs available in Polish pharmacies contain similar levels of Cu, Mn and Zn. Our results show additionally that all of the products do not represent a health hazard to the newborns and infants. This is a pioneer study in terms of the safety assessment, and quality of prescription FSMPs and MMPs available in Polish pharmacies from toxicological and nutritional point of view.
Publication titleJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
- Accepted version