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The Intuitive Eating Scale-3: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

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posted on 2024-05-20, 14:27 authored by Tracy L Tylka, Christophe Maïano, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Jake Linardon, C Blair Burnette, Jennifer Todd, Viren Swami
Intuitive eating has been found to protect against disordered eating and preserve well-being. Yet, there are methodological (length), conceptual (inconsideration of medical, value-based, and access-related reasons for food consumption), and psychometric (item wording) concerns with its most common measure, the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2). To address these concerns, we developed the IES-3 and investigated its psychometric properties with U.S. community adults. Across three online studies, we evaluated the IES-3’s factorial validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1; N=957; Mage=36.30), as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), bifactor-CFA, and bifactor-ESEM (Study 2; N=1152; Mage=40.95), and cross-validated the optimal model (Study 3; N=884; Mage=38.54). We examined measurement invariance across samples and time, differential item functioning (age, body mass index [BMI], gender), composite reliability, and validity. Study 1 revealed a 12-item, 4-factor structure (unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, reliance on hunger and satiety cues, body-food choice congruence). In Study 2, a bifactor-ESEM model with a global intuitive eating factor and four specific factors best fit the data, which was temporally stable across three weeks. This model also had good fit in Study 3 and, across Studies 2 and 3, and was fully invariant and lacked measurement bias in terms of age, gender, and BMI. Associations between latent IES-3 factors and age, gender, and BMI were invariant across Studies 2 and 3. Composite reliability and validity (relationships with disordered eating, embodiment, body image, well-being, and distress; negligible relationship with impression management) of the retained model were also supported. The 12-item IES-3 demonstrates strong psychometric properties in U.S. community adults. Research is now needed using the IES-3 in other cultural contexts and social identity groups.

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Refereed

  • Yes

Volume

199

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Appetite

ISSN

0195-6663

Publisher

Elsevier

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  • Published version

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Article

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  • School of Psychology and Sport Science Outputs

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