Anglia Ruskin University
217007_PubSub650_Barnett.pdf (372.03 kB)

The Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Older Adults

Download (372.03 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-08-30, 16:48 authored by Dean E. Mills, Michael A. Johnson, Yvonne A. Barnett, William H. T. Smith, Graham R. Sharpe
Purpose: Declining inspiratory muscle function and structure and systemic low-level inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to morbidity and mortality during normal ageing. Therefore, we examined the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in older adults on inspiratory muscle function and structure and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, and reexamined the reported positive effects of IMT on respiratory muscle strength, inspiratory muscle endurance, spirometry, exercise performance, physical activity levels (PAL), and quality of life (QoL). Methods: Thirty-four healthy older adults (68 ± 3 yr) with normal spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, and physical fitness were divided equally into a pressure-threshold IMT or sham-hypoxic placebo group. Before and after an 8-wk intervention, measurements were taken for dynamic inspiratory muscle function and inspiratory muscle endurance using a weighted plunger pressure-threshold loading device; diaphragm thickness by using B-mode ultrasonography; plasma cytokine concentrations by using immunoassays; DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using comet assays; spirometry, maximal mouth pressures, and exercise performance by using a 6-min walk test; PAL by using a questionnaire and accelerometry; and QoL using a questionnaire. Results: Compared with placebo, IMT increased maximal inspiratory pressure (+34% ± 43%, P = 0.008), diaphragm thickness at residual volume (+38% ± 39%, P = 0.03), and peak inspiratory flow (+35% ± 42%, P = 0.049) but did not change other spirometry measures, plasma cytokine concentrations, DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, dynamic inspiratory muscle function, inspiratory muscle endurance, exercise performance, PAL, or QoL. Conclusion: These novel data indicate that in healthy older adults, IMT elicits some positive changes in inspiratory muscle function and structure but neither attenuates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress nor improves exercise performance, PAL, or QoL.



  • Yes



Issue number


Page range


Publication title

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise




American College of Sports Medicine

File version

  • Accepted version


  • eng

Legacy posted date


Legacy creation date


Legacy Faculty/School/Department

ARCHIVED Faculty of Science & Technology (until September 2018)

Usage metrics

    ARU Outputs


    No categories selected