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Pupillary Abnormalities with Varying Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy
journal contributionposted on 2023-09-01, 14:15 authored by Mukesh Jain, Sandeep Devan, Durgasri Jaisankar, Gayathri Swaminathan, Shahina Pardhan, Rajiv Raman
Our aim is to study the dynamics of pupillary abnormalities in varying severity of diabetic retinopathy. A non-interventional case-control study with 405 eyes of 244 subjects with diabetes, and 41 eyes of 26 subjects with no history of diabetes was done. Diabetes group was classified according to retinopathy severity: no retinopathy, mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). After dark adaptation, pupil size and flashlight response were captured with an infrared camera. Baseline Pupil Diameter (BPD), Amplitude of Pupillary Constriction (APC), Velocity of Pupillary Constriction (VPC) and Velocity of Pupillary Dilatation (VPD). Compared to controls, mean BPD decreased with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy. Mean APC in control group was 1.73 ± 0.37 mm and reduced in mild NPDR (1.57 ± 0.39, p = 1.000), moderate NPDR (1.51 ± 0.44, p = 0.152) and found to be significant reduced in severe NPDR (1.43 ± 0.48, p = 0.001) and PDR (1.29 ± 0.43, p = 0.008). Compared to controls, mean VPC decreased progressively with increasing severity of retinopathy, with a maximal difference in the PDR group. Mean VPD as compared to the control group was significantly reduced in the no DR (p = 0.03), mild NPDR (p = 0.038), moderate NPDR (p = 0.05), PDR group (p = 0.02). We found pupillary dynamics are abnormal in early stages of diabetic retinopathy and progress with increasing retinopathy severity.
Publication titleScientific Reports
- Published version