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Is there an association between depression, anxiety disorders and COVID-19 severity and mortality? A multicenter retrospective cohort study conducted in 50 hospitals in Germany
journal contributionposted on 2023-09-01, 15:06 authored by Karel Kostev, Marion Hagemann-Goebel, Nele Gessler, Peter Wohlmuth, Johannes Feldhege, Dirk Arnold, Louis Jacob, Melanie Gunawardene, Thomas Holting, Ai Koyanagi, Ruediger Schreiber, Lee Smith, Sara Sheikhzadeh, Marc Axel Wollmer
Background The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate associations between depression and anxiety disorder and the risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality in patients treated in large hospitals in Germany. Methods This retrospective study was based on anonymized electronic medical data from 50 public healthcare service hospitals across Germany. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to study associations between depression, anxiety and mechanical ventilation and mortality due to COVID adjusted for age, sex, time of COVID-19 diagnosis, and pre-defined co-diagnoses. Results Of 28,311 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 1970 (6.9%) had a diagnosis of depression and 369 (1.3%) had a diagnosis of anxiety disorder prior to contracting COVID-19. While multivariable logistic regression models did not indicate any association between depression diagnosis and the risk of mechanical ventilation, depression was associated with a decreased risk of mortality (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53–0.94). There was no association between anxiety disorders and risk of mortality, but there was a strong positive association between anxiety disorders and the risk of mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.35–3.10). Conclusion In the present study, depression and anxiety disorder diagnoses were not associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. Anxiety disorder was strongly associated with an increased risk of mechanical ventilation. Further studies are needed to clarify how depression and anxiety disorders may influence COVID-19 severity and mortality.
Publication titleJournal of Psychiatric Research
- Accepted version