Anglia Ruskin University
Timmis_et_al_2021.pdf (990.86 kB)
Download file

How is jump performance affected in male athletes when completed with a visual impairment?

Download (990.86 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-08-30, 18:09 authored by Matthew A. Timmis, Mike Ferrandino, Andrew Morrison, Peter M. Allen, Keziah Latham
SIGNIFICANCE: High-, long-, and triple-jump athletic events may need to consider whether it is appropriate to group vision-impaired athletes in the same classification with loss of different visual functions, and a greater emphasis may need to be placed on the visual field (VF) within the current classification system used. PURPOSE: Athletes with vision impairment are grouped, based on their visual function, into one of three different classes (B1, B2, and B3, with B1 being the most severe). Athletes in class B2 have loss in visual acuity (VA; range, 1.50 to 2.60 logMAR) or VF (constricted to a diameter of <10°). The current study investigated how loss of different visual function (VA or VF) within the same class impacts jumping performance, a fundamental component in long-, triple-, and high-jump athletic events. METHODS: Ten subelite male athletes (age, 21.6 ± 0.96 years; height, 178.8 ± 2.97 cm; mass, 82.2 ± 10.58 kg) with normal vision who participate in athletics were recruited. Participants completed drop jumps in four vision conditions: habitual vision condition (Full), VA no better than 1.60 logMAR (B2-VA), VF restricted to <10° (B2-VF), and VA no better than 1.30 logMAR (B3-VA). RESULTS: Meaningful differences were observed between Full and B2-VF conditions. After rebound, vertical velocity at take-off was highest in Full condition (2.84 ± 0.35 m · s−1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68 to 2.99 m · s−1) and was lowest in B2-VF condition (20% reduction; 2.32 ± 0.29 m · s−1; 95% CI, 2.16 to 2.48 m · s−1). Peak vertical jump height was highest in Full (0.42 ± 0.10 m; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.46 m) and reduced by 40% in B2-VF (0.28 ± 0.07 m; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.32 m). Minimal differences were found between Full and B2-VA, or B3-VA conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Jump performance is compromised in athletes with simulated vision impairment. However, decrements in performance seem specific to those with severely constricted VF. Those with reduced VA (in B2-VA and B3-VA classes) seem to produce performance comparable to those with normal vision.



  • Yes



Issue number


Page range


Publication title

Optometry and Vision Science




American Academy of Optometry

File version

  • Accepted version


  • eng

Legacy posted date


Legacy creation date


Legacy Faculty/School/Department

Faculty of Science & Engineering

Usage metrics

    ARU Outputs


    No categories selected