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Hemorrhoids are associated with an increased risk of depression in Germany: a retrospective cohort study in primary care outpatients

journal contribution
posted on 2024-05-20, 11:55 authored by Karel Kostev, Marcel Konrad, Lee Smith, Sarah Krieg

Background: The aim of the present study was to analyze the cumulative incidence of depression diagnosis in patients with hemorrhoids and to evaluate the association between hemorrhoids and subsequent depression diagnosis.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on electronic medical records from the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) and included 87,264 individuals with hemorrhoids (mean age: 54.2 years; 42% women) and 87,264 propensity score-matched individuals without hemorrhoids in 1,284 general practices in Germany between January 2005 and December 2021. Univariable Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between hemorrhoids and depression.

Results: After up to 10 years of follow-up, 21.4% of patients with hemorrhoids versus 16.3% of the matched cohort (p<0.001) were diagnosed with depression. There was a significant association between hemorrhoids and a subsequent diagnosis of depression (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.28–1.37), which was confirmed in age- and sex-stratified analyses. The association was stronger with increasing degree of hemorrhoids, from HR: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.15–1.45) for Grade 1 to HR: 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11–2.69) for Grade 4 compared to no hemorrhoids.

Conclusions: The present study provides compelling evidence of an association between hemorrhoids and subsequent depression. Addressing the mental health of individuals with hemorrhoids may not only improve their overall well-being but could also lead to better treatment outcomes for the primary condition.



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Journal of Psychiatric Research





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  • School of Psychology and Sport Science Outputs