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Effects of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal and neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
journal contributionposted on 2023-09-01, 15:15 authored by Masoud Rahmati, Dong Keon Yon, Seung Won Lee, Laurie T. Butler, Ai Koyanagi, Louis Jacob, Jae Il Shin, Lee Smith
SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, but no systematic synthesis of evidence on COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy against these outcomes has been undertaken. Thus, we aimed to assess the collective evidence on the effects of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to 1 November 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate pooled effects size and 95% confidence interval (CI). We evaluated 30 studies involving 862,272 individuals (308,428 vaccinated and 553,844 unvaccinated). Overall pooled analyses in pregnant women during pregnancy showed reduced risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 60% (41%–73%), COVID-19 hospitalisation during pregnancy by 53% (31%–69%), and COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) admission by 82% (12%–99%). Neonates of vaccinated women were 1.78 folds more likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of life during the Omicron period. The risk of stillbirth was reduced by 45% (17%–63%) in association with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy. A decrease of 15% (3%–25%), 33% (14%–48%), and 33% (17%–46%) in the odds of preterm births before 37, 32 and 28 weeks' gestation were associated with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy, respectively. The risk of neonatal ICU admission was significantly lower by 20% following COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy (16%–24%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, cardiac problems, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, unassisted vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, postpartum haemorrhage, gestational age at delivery, placental abruption, Apgar score at 5 min below 7, low birthweight (<2500 g), very low birthweight (<1500 g), small for gestational age, and neonatal foetal abnormalities. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy is safe and highly effective in preventing maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, without increasing the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth, preterm births, and neonatal ICU admission. Importantly, maternal vaccination did not reduce the risk of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 6 months of life during the Omicron period.
Publication titleReviews in Medical Virology
- Accepted version