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Ambivalence toward men: comparing sexism among Polish, South African and British university students

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posted on 2023-08-30, 14:12 authored by Magdalena Zawisza, Russell Luyt, Anna Maria Zawadzka
This study extends the literature on attitudes toward gender roles by exploring whether the nature of sexism (i.e., benevolence and hostility directed at men) differs among university students from two under-researched countries, Poland (n = 190) and South Africa (n = 188), in a comparison with students in the United Kingdom (n = 166). Based on empirical literature applying Ambivalent Sexism Theory, and in the light of the socio-political context, it was hypothesized that: (1) both hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men in Poland would be more liberal than in South Africa and more conservative than in the United Kingdom, and (2), women would exhibit more hostile but less benevolent attitudes than men in relatively more conservative South Africa. The Ambivalence to Men Inventory was used to measure the two types of sexist attitudes about men. Findings supported the first hypothesis for hostile attitudes and partially for benevolent attitudes. South African and Polish students were more benevolent and hostile to men than British students, and students from South Africa were more hostile than those from Poland. Moreover, as predicted, a significant country-by-gender interaction revealed that South African women had more hostile and less benevolent attitudes to men than South African men. No such gender gap was present in the case of hostile attitudes in Poland and benevolent attitudes in the United Kingdom. Findings are discussed in terms of Ambivalent Sexism Theory and the countries’ socio-cultural context.



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Sex Roles





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ARCHIVED Faculty of Science & Technology (until September 2018)


Citation: Zawisza, M., Luyt, R., and Zawadzka, A.M., 2012. Ambivalence toward men: comparing sexism among Polish, South African and British university students, Sex Roles, 66 (7-8), pp. 453-467..

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